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Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für turtles im Online-Wörterbuch mcskadecenter.se (Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung im Kontext von „Turtles.“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: turtles, sea turtles. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'turtle' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Einige der Highlights waren Dinge wie "The Terminator", "Aladdin" oder "Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles". EnglishLog sets kill sea turtles and many other species. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "ninja turtles" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles (Originaltitel: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles) ist eine Die deutsche Synchronfassung der ersten sieben Staffeln wurde von Video & Sound Studios Hamburg erstellt, dabei führte Dieter B. Gerlach Synchronregie. Einige der Highlights waren Dinge wie "The Terminator", "Aladdin" oder "Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles". EnglishLog sets kill sea turtles and many other species. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "ninja turtles" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Turtles Deutsch VideoTeenage Mutant Ninja Turtles - Original Titelsong - Nickelodeon Deutschland Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "turtle and tortoise" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles (Originaltitel: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles) ist eine Die deutsche Synchronfassung der ersten sieben Staffeln wurde von Video & Sound Studios Hamburg erstellt, dabei führte Dieter B. Gerlach Synchronregie.
In , a live-action feature film was released, with the Turtles and Splinter being portrayed by actors in partially animatronic suits created by Jim Henson's Creature Shop.
The independent film was very successful spawning two sequels , as well as inspiring a three-dimensional animated film set in the same continuity, which was released in under the title TMNT.
After the end of the cartoon series, a live-action series in the vein of the films was created in in conjunction with Saban Entertainment.
However, the series was largely unsuccessful and was canceled after one season. The series storyline stuck much closer to the original Mirage comic book series, but was still less violent.
It lasted for seven seasons and episodes, ending in February On October 21, , it was announced that cable channel Nickelodeon a subsidiary of Viacom had purchased all of Mirage's rights to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles property.
Mirage retains the rights to publish 18 issues a year, though the future involvement of Mirage with the Turtles and the future of Mirage Studios itself is unknown.
The TV show premiered on Nickelodeon on September 29, It was published by Mirage Studios in an oversized magazine-style format using black and white artwork on cheap newsprint, limited to a print run of only 3, copies.
The small print runs made these early comics and trade magazines instant collector items, and within months, they were trading for over 50 times their cover price.
The name "Mirage Studios" was chosen because of Eastman and Laird's lack of a professional art studio at the start of their career, before their creation made them both multimillionaires.
This put the original series and Tales in the same mainstream canon. The title's first volume was from —, released in alternating months with the regular Eastman and Laird book.
All seven issues of volume one have been collected in trade paperback form twice, and 25 issues of volume two have been collected in trades of five issues each.
As the TMNT phenomenon proliferated to other media, Eastman and Laird found themselves administrating an international merchandising juggernaut.
However, this prevented the two creators from participating in the day-to-day work of writing and illustrating a monthly comic book.
So, many guest artists were invited to showcase their unique talents in the TMNT universe. The breadth of diversity found in the various short stories gave the series a disjointed, anthology-like feel.
Fans stuck with the series, and what was originally intended as a one-shot became a continuing series that lasted for issues, spanning four separate volumes having 62, 13, 23, and 32 issues in the four distinct volumes.
In June , Image Comics took over publishing the title in what is considered "volume 3" of the series. It was a slightly more action-oriented TMNT series and although notable for inflicting major physical changes on the main characters, Peter Laird, co-creator of the TMNT, has said this volume is no longer in canon as he began publishing volume 4 at Mirage Publishing.
As an explanation, he offered in the pages of the volume 4 issue 8 letter column: "It just didn't feel right. After the publication of issue number 28, writer Peter Laird placed the series on an eight-month hiatus to devote himself to production of the TMNT movie.
However, after that eight months had passed, Mirage's official website went on to list the series as in "indefinite hiatus". In January , Mirage had finally confirmed that the series would return in May Issues 29 and 30 had a limited printing of 1, copies each, and were available through the official TMNT website.
Although the purchase agreement with Nickelodeon allows Laird to produce up to 18 comics a year set in the original Mirage continuity, no new material was released in the next few years.
The latest issue of TMNT volume 4 was issue 32 which came out in print May 4, , and online on May 9, , almost 4 years after issue 31 was last released.
The initial storylines were close adaptations of the TV series, but with the fifth issue, Eastman and Laird decided to hand the series over to Mirage Studios employees Ryan Brown and Stephen Murphy , who immediately abandoned the animated series adaptations and took the title in a decidedly different direction with all-new original adventures, including the uniting of several of the series' recurring characters as a separate team, the Mighty Mutanimals.
In the first four issues, which were the only ones directly adapted from the TV series, the story was told from the perspectives of April, Baxter, Casey, and a pair of New York City police officers.
In April , IDW Publishing announced that they had acquired the license to publish new collections of Mirage storylines and a new ongoing series.
The Turtles have appeared in several manga series. A daily comic strip written and illustrated by Dan Berger began in It featured an adventure story Monday through Friday and activity puzzles on weekends with fan art appearing later.
The comic strip was published in syndication until its cancellation in December At its highest point in popularity, it was published in over newspapers.
When little-known Playmates Toys was approached about producing a TMNTs action figure line, they were cautious of the risk and requested that a television deal be acquired first.
Mirage Studios does not own the rights to this cartoon series. The show is more lighthearted than the comics. Here, the Turtles are portrayed as four funny but serious superheroes that fight the forces of evil from their sewer hideout.
They love pizza and put weird toppings on it. They make their first appearance in masks color-coded to each turtle, where previously they had all worn red.
Words and phrases included "bummer", "dude", "bogus", "radical", "far-out", "tubuloso", "bodacious", and possibly the most recognized, "cowabunga".
The cast included new and different characters, such as Bebop and Rocksteady and the Neutrinos. Original characters such as Splinter , Shredder , and the Foot Soldiers stayed true to the comics in appearance and alignment only.
Instead of being Hamato Yoshi's mutated pet rat, Splinter was a mutated Hamato himself. The Foot Soldiers changed from human ninjas to an endless supply of robotic grunts, allowing large numbers of them to be destroyed without anyone dying this was a very important decision in terms of the show's child audience; excessive violence would have alienated parents of children, the show's target demographic.
Krang , one of the series' most memorable villains, was inspired by the design of the Utrom, a benign alien race from the Mirage comics. The animated Krang, however, was instead an evil warlord from Dimension X.
Baxter Stockman , whose race was changed from black to white , was rewritten as a shy and meek lackey to Shredder, later mutating into an anthropomorphic housefly.
During the final two seasons of the show, the lead villain switched to Lord Dregg, an evil alien overlord bent on world conquest by trying to distract the public into believing that the Turtles were the enemy instead of himself.
Starting on September 25, , the series was expanded to weekdays and it had 47 more episodes for the new season. There were 28 new syndicated episodes for season 4 and only 13 of those episodes aired in These episodes were delayed because of animation or scheduling problems.
Starting on September 8, with a different opening sequence , the show began its run on CBS. The CBS weekend edition ran for a full hour until , initially airing a few Saturday-exclusive episodes back-to-back.
Also, a brief "Turtle Tips" segment aired between the two episodes, which served as public-service announcement about the environment or other issues.
After , the show was reduced to just a half-hour and only eight episodes per season were produced, grouped into a "CBS Action Zone" block that also featured WildC.
The series ran until November 2, , when it aired its final episode. Its enormous popularity gave rise to its numerous imitators, including the Battletoads , Cheetahmen , Wild West C.
In addition to the American series, a Japan-exclusive two-episode anime original video animation OVA series was made in , titled Mutant Turtles: Choujin Densetsu-hen.
It featured the Turtles as superheroes , that gained costumes and superpowers with the use of Mutastones, while Shredder, Bebop and Rocksteady gained supervillain powers with the use of a Dark Mutastone.
The second episode was created to advertise the Metal Mutants toys in which the characters gain Saint Seiya -esque mystical metal armor that can transform into beasts.
In —, the Turtles starred in a live-action television series called Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation that directly follows the events of the first three movies.
A fifth turtle was introduced, a female named Venus de Milo , who was skilled in the mystical arts of the shinobi. Other connections to the feature films include the fact that Splinter's ear was cut, the Foot Soldiers were humans, and the Turtles lived in the abandoned subway station seen in the second and third movies.
It later moved to " The CW4Kids " block. The series was co-produced by Mirage Studios,  and Mirage owned one-third of the rights to the series.
Mirage's significant stake in creative control resulted in a cartoon that hews more closely to the original comics, creating a darker and edgier feel than the cartoon, but still child-friendly enough to be considered appropriate for children.
This series lasted until , ending with a feature-length television movie titled Turtles Forever , which was produced in conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the TMNTs franchise and featured the Turtles of the series teaming up with their counterparts from the series, and eventually are visited by the black and white comic versions of themselves in the final act.
The series ran for five seasons. Nickelodeon announced a new 2D animated series based on the franchise, which debuted on September 17, The version is characterized by lighter humor, and also had some anime iconography.
The Turtles have appeared in six feature films. The Turtles were played by various actors in costumes featuring animatronic heads, initially produced by Jim Henson's Creature Shop.
The game features a large list of animals, including elephants and sparrows, that are available as mutant player characters. In , Dark Horse Miniatures in Boise, Idaho, produced an attendant set of lead figurines ; unlike later incarnations, the bandannas on the store's display set were painted all black before the multicolored versions were released to help younger readers distinguish between the four characters other than their weaponry.
Palladium allowed the license to lapse in , in part due to declining sales stemming from the "kiddification" of the animated and live-action incarnations to that point.
However, Palladium's publisher, Kevin Siembieda , has indicated a potential willingness to revisit the license given the franchise's recent moves closer to its roots.
During the run of the TV series, Playmates Toys produced hundreds of TMNT action figures , along with vehicles, playsets , and accessories, becoming one of the top collectibles for children.
The marketing vice president of Playmates, Karl Aaronian, was largely responsible for assembling the talented team of designers and writers, which in turn, helped germinate continued interest in the toy line.
Never before in toy history did an action-figure line have such an impact for over two decades, generating billions of dollars in licensing revenue.
Playmates continue to produce TMNT action figures based on the animated series. The film TMNT also gave Playmates a new source from which to make figures, while National Entertainment Collectibles Association produced a series of high-quality action figures based on character designs from the original Mirage comics.
In , a new toy line and a new classic toy line from Playmates were announced to be released. As the video game series progressed, and the Ninja Turtles' popularity began to decline in the mids, the video games changed direction.
In , Ubisoft acquired the rights for TMNT games, beginning with a game based on the animated feature film , along with a distinct game for the Game Boy Advance similar in style to the Konami arcade games.
The game is described as a third-person, team-based brawler. The campaign is playable either single-player or co-op and has an original story written by Tom Waltz, IDW comic writer and editor.
The game used many key mechanics from the Palladium system. The game itself is limited to which martial arts are available, but a separate book, Ninjas and Superspies ,  increased the amount available to a choice of 41 martial arts styles.
Examples of animals created are included in the appendices as potential antagonists, including the Terror Bears, Caesers Weasels, and Sparrow Eagles, as well as including stats for the Turtles and other characters.
During the height of their popularity, the Turtles had a number of food tie-ins. Shreddies used to give out TMNT toys in their boxes when the cereal advertising was still geared toward children.
One example of a TMNT prize was rings featuring a character on the cartoon There was also green Ninja Turtle ice cream with different toppings according to which turtle flavor one ordered.
Chef Boyardee also released a canned pasta with the pasta in the shapes of the four turtles. To capitalize on the Turtles' popularity, a concert tour was held in , premiering at Radio City Music Hall on August A pay-per-view special highlighting the concert was shown, and a studio album was also released.
The tour was sponsored by Pizza Hut in reality; thus, many references are made to their pizza. As part of a cross-marketing strategy, Pizza Hut restaurants gave away posters, audio cassettes of "Coming Out of Their Shells", and "Official Tour Guides" as premiums.
The original show of the tour was released on video with a making of video also released. Emerging from their Turtle Party Wagon, they would "ninja dance" across the stage while April performed the theme song to the show.
After the main show was done, they posed for pictures and signed autographs. They also appeared during the Easter parade dancing to their single "Pizza Power!
Once the Turtles broke into the mainstream, parodies also proliferated in other media, such as in satire magazines Cracked and Mad and numerous TV series of the period.
The Turtles engaged in a greater amount of overt violence in the pages of the early Mirage comic book series by Eastman and Laird.
As the TMNT were introduced into the mainstream, they were radically redesigned. In issue 19 of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles , the creators published an editorial addressing any possible concerns of readers as a result of this.
It stated, in part: "We've allowed the wacky side to happen, and enjoy it very much. The lyrics were also changed, such as changing "Splinter taught them to be ninja teens" to "Splinter taught them to be fighting teens".
The policies also had other effects, such as editing out use of Michelangelo's nunchaku which were at the time banned by James Ferman , chairman of the BBFC , from appearing in films and generally toning down the usage of all the turtles' weapons.
In Italy, Spain and Portugal, they kept Michelangelo's nunchaku but the "TMHT" logo could be seen in the intro, as it was not edited to reflect the title in each of those translations.
In Spain the cartoon was originally aired in regional TV channels and thus had different dubs in addition to Castillian : Galician and Catalan ; [ citation needed ] in the Galician version, the title As Tartarugas Mutantes "The Mutant Turtles" was used.
The Italian and European Portuguese dubs also had few edits. In the Republic of Ireland , the series was initially known as Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles just like the US version and the intro sequence was unedited when it debuted on RTE Two with the airing of the second season in September In —, episodes were aired in their original US unedited form.
However, when the live-action movie came out in , the Ninja of the title was kept even in the UK. In time, nunchaku scenes were retained in previously-censored movies such as those of Bruce Lee.
The same went for the PAL releases of the early video games, which had Michelangelo's weapon of choice fully visible and usable.
By the time the TV series premiered, these censorship policies had been abolished, and no changes have occurred in the content of any incarnations of the show since.
This 3-Disc set contains all the episodes of Seasons 1 and 2 and 4 episodes from the final season, as well as a 1-Disc DVD with the first few episodes of Season 1.
This release features the original, unedited episodes under the "Ninja Turtles" title, and also marks the first time the show has been released and left uncensored in the UK.
Due to various movie and television deals, the various TMNT films and television series have split between various companies, with Mirage Studios having retained copyright and trademark until October 19, , at which point the rights for the entire TMNT franchise were sold by co-creator Peter Laird to Viacom minus volume 4 of the comic series, which Mirage indefinitely owns.
The series itself is owned by Wolf Films, with home entertainment rights residing with Lions Gate Entertainment , and the syndication rights belong to Nickelodeon's corporate sibling CBS Television Distribution.
The initial five-part miniseries retroactively considered the first season was copyrighted by Playmates Toys , although their rights to those episodes were bought out by Fred Wolf Films.
In September , Saban Brands acquired the rights of the show once again. The second animated series — was a co-production between Mirage Studios and 4Kids Entertainment.
This rigid shell is not capable of expansion, and by rendering their rib-cage immobile, Testudines have had to evolve special adaptations for respiration.
Turtle pulmonary ventilation occurs by using specific groups of abdominal muscles attached to their viscera and shell that pull the lungs ventrally during inspiration, where air is drawn in via a negative pressure gradient Boyle's Law.
The lungs of Testudines are multi-chambered and attached their entire length down the carapace.
The number of chambers can vary between taxa , though most commonly they have three lateral chambers, three medial chambers, and one terminal chamber.
Specifically, it is the turtles large liver that pulls or pushes on the lungs. Supporting the lungs is the post-pulmonary septum, which is found in all Testudines, and is thought to prevent the lungs from collapsing.
As mentioned above, the outer layer of the shell is part of the skin; each scute or plate on the shell corresponds to a single modified scale.
The remainder of the skin has much smaller scales, similar to the skin of other reptiles. Turtles do not molt their skins all at once as snakes do, but continuously in small pieces.
When turtles are kept in aquaria, small sheets of dead skin can be seen in the water often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic having been sloughed off when the animals deliberately rub themselves against a piece of wood or stone.
Tortoises also shed skin, but dead skin is allowed to accumulate into thick knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of the body outside the shell.
By counting the rings formed by the stack of smaller, older scutes on top of the larger, newer ones, it is possible to estimate the age of a turtle, if one knows how many scutes are produced in a year.
Terrestrial tortoises have short, sturdy feet. Tortoises are famous for moving slowly, in part because of their heavy, cumbersome shells, which restrict stride length.
Amphibious turtles normally have limbs similar to those of tortoises, except that the feet are webbed and often have long claws.
These turtles swim using all four feet in a way similar to the dog paddle , with the feet on the left and right side of the body alternately providing thrust.
Large turtles tend to swim less than smaller ones, and the very big species, such as alligator snapping turtles, hardly swim at all, preferring to walk along the bottom of the river or lake.
As well as webbed feet, turtles have very long claws, used to help them clamber onto riverbanks and floating logs upon which they bask.
Male turtles tend to have particularly long claws, and these appear to be used to stimulate the female while mating.
While most turtles have webbed feet, some, such as the pig-nosed turtle , have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and the claws being relatively small.
These species swim in the same way as sea turtles do see below. Sea turtles are almost entirely aquatic and have flippers instead of feet.
Sea turtles fly through the water, using the up-and-down motion of the front flippers to generate thrust; the back feet are not used for propulsion but may be used as rudders for steering.
Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles have very limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest to the sea as hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea.
Females must come back onto land to lay eggs. They move very slowly and laboriously, dragging themselves forwards with their flippers.
Turtles are thought to have exceptional night vision due to the unusually large number of rod cells in their retinas. Turtles have color vision with a wealth of cone subtypes with sensitivities ranging from the near ultraviolet UVA to red.
Some land turtles have very poor pursuit movement abilities, which are normally found only in predators that hunt quick-moving prey, but carnivorous turtles are able to move their heads quickly to snap.
While typically thought of as mute, turtles make various sounds when communicating. Tortoises may be vocal when courting and mating. Various species of both freshwater and sea turtles emit numerous types of calls, often short and low frequency, from the time they are in the egg to when they are adults.
These vocalizations may serve to create group cohesion when migrating. It has been reported that wood turtles are better than white rats at learning to navigate mazes.
Turtles are known for displaying a wide variety of mating behaviors, however, they are not known for forming pair-bonds or for being part of a social group.
Males belonging to semi-aquatic and bottom-walking species instead often use their larger size advantage to forcibly mate with a female.
Males in this category resort to using courtship displays in an attempt to gain mating access to a female. Wood turtles are an example of a terrestrial species where the males have a hierarchical ranking system based on dominance through fighting, and it's shown that the males with the highest rank and thus the most wins in fights have the most offspring.
Galapagos tortoises are another example of a species which has a hierarchical rank that is determined by dominance displays, and access to food and mates is regulated by this dominance hierarchy.
The male scorpion mud turtle is an example of a bottom-walking aquatic species that relies on overpowering females with its larger size as a mating strategy.
This exposes her cloaca , and with it exposed, the male can attempt copulation by trying to insert his grasping tail. Male radiated tortoises are also known to use the force mating strategy wherein they use surrounding vegetation to trap or prevent females from escaping, then pin them down for copulation.
Red-eared sliders are an example of a fully aquatic species in which the male performs a courtship behavior. In this case the male extends his forelegs with the palms facing out and flutters his forelegs in the female's face.
As such, they've evolved certain behaviors to avoid the male's attempts at copulation, such as swimming away, confronting the male followed by biting, or a refusal position in which the female assumes a vertical position with her limbs widely outspread and her plastron facing the male.
Although many turtles spend large amounts of their lives underwater, all turtles and tortoises breathe air and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs.
Immersion periods vary between 60 seconds and 1 hour depending on the species. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied.
Some species have large cloacal cavities that are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called papillae , have a rich blood supply and increase the surface area of the cloaca.
The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water using these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills to respire.
Like other reptiles , turtles lay eggs that are slightly soft and leathery. The eggs of the largest species are spherical while the eggs of the rest are elongated.
Their albumen is white and contains a different protein from bird eggs, such that it will not coagulate when cooked.
Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female : a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.
Large numbers of eggs are deposited in holes dug into mud or sand. They are then covered and left to incubate by themselves.
Depending on the species, the eggs will typically take 70— days to hatch. There are no known species in which the mother cares for her young.
Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry, sandy beaches. Immature sea turtles are not cared for by the adults. Turtles can take many years to reach breeding age, and in many cases, breed every few years rather than annually.
Researchers have recently discovered a turtle's organs do not gradually break down or become less efficient over time, unlike most other animals.
It was found that the liver, lungs, and kidneys of a centenarian turtle are virtually indistinguishable from those of its immature counterpart.
This has inspired genetic researchers to begin examining the turtle genome for longevity genes. A group of turtles is known as a bale. A turtle's diet varies greatly depending on the environment in which it lives.
Adult turtles typically eat aquatic plants ; [ citation needed ] invertebrates such as insects , snails , and worms ; and have been reported to occasionally eat dead marine animals.
Several small freshwater species are carnivorous, eating small fish and a wide range of aquatic life. However, protein is essential to turtle growth and juvenile turtles are purely carnivorous.
Sea turtles typically feed on jellyfish , sponges , and other soft-bodied organisms. Some species with stronger jaws have been observed to eat shellfish , while others, such as the green sea turtle , do not eat meat at all and, instead, have a diet largely made up of algae.
Based on body fossils, the first proto-turtles are believed to have existed in the late Triassic Period of the Mesozoic era, about million years ago, and their shell, which has remained a remarkably stable body plan , is thought to have evolved from bony extensions of their backbones and broad ribs that expanded and grew together to form a complete shell that offered protection at every stage of its evolution, even when the bony component of the shell was not complete.
This is supported by fossils of the freshwater Odontochelys semitestacea or "half-shelled turtle with teeth", from the late Triassic, which have been found near Guangling in southwest China.
Odontochelys displays a complete bony plastron and an incomplete carapace, similar to an early stage of turtle embryonic development.
By the late Jurassic , turtles had radiated widely, and their fossil history becomes easier to read. Their exact ancestry has been disputed.
It was believed they are the only surviving branch of the ancient evolutionary grade Anapsida , which includes groups such as procolophonids , millerettids , protorothyrids , and pareiasaurs.
All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings although in mammals , the hole has become the zygomatic arch.
The millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs became extinct in the late Permian period and the procolophonoids during the Triassic.
However, it was later suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to reversion rather than to anapsid descent.
More recent morphological phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids , slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria.
Testudines were suggested to have diverged from other diapsids between and million years ago, though the debate is far from settled.
A combined analysis of morphological and molecular data conducted by Lee found turtles to be anapsids though a relationship with archosaurs couldn't be statistically rejected.
The first genome-wide phylogenetic analysis was completed by Wang et al. Using the draft genomes of Chelonia mydas and Pelodiscus sinensis, the team used the largest turtle data set to date in their analysis and concluded that turtles are likely a sister group of crocodilians and birds Archosauria.
The earliest known fully shelled member of the turtle lineage is the late Triassic Proganochelys. This genus already possessed many advanced turtle traits, and thus probably indicates many millions of years of preceding turtle evolution; this is further supported by evidence from fossil tracks from the Early Triassic of the United States Wyoming and Utah and from the Middle Triassic of Germany , indicating that proto-turtles already existed as early as the Early Triassic.
While this body form is similar to that of ankylosaurs , it resulted from convergent evolution. Turtles are divided into two extant suborders: Cryptodira and Pleurodira.
The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles.
The Pleurodira are sometimes known as the side-necked turtles, a reference to the way they retract their heads into their shells.
This smaller group consists primarily of various freshwater turtles. Until 3, years ago, the family Meiolaniidae was also extant, but this family is outside the Testudines crown group , belonging to Perichelydia.
Order Testudines Linnaeus, Turtle fossils of hatchling and nestling size have been documented in the scientific literature.
The specimen named as Carbonemys cofrinii is around 60 million years old and nearly 2. On a few rare occasions, paleontologists have succeeded in unearthing large numbers of Jurassic or Cretaceous turtle skeletons accumulated in a single area the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia, the Turtle Graveyard in North Dakota , or the Black Mountain Turtle Layer in Wyoming.
The most spectacular find of this kind to date occurred in in Shanshan County in Xinjiang , where over a thousand ancient freshwater turtles apparently died after the last water hole in an area dried out during a major drought.
Though absent from New Zealand in recent times, turtle fossils are known from the Miocene Saint Bathans Fauna , represented by a meiolaniid and pleurodires.
Some turtles, particularly small terrestrial and freshwater turtles, are kept as pets. Among the most popular are Russian tortoises , spur-thighed tortoises , and red-eared sliders.
In the United States, due to the ease of contracting salmonellosis through casual contact with turtles, the U. Some states have other laws and regulations regarding possession of red-eared sliders as pets because they are looked upon as invasive species or pests where they are not native, but have been introduced through the pet trade.
As of July 1, , it is illegal in Florida to sell any wild type red-eared slider. In Europe, turtle and tortoise keeping became popular in the s and s, when large numbers of wild-caught turtles and tortoises were imported.
This was especially devastating to the Mediterranean tortoise population. In the s the import of wild-caught tortoises started to be banned in various countries.
Most turtles and tortoises for sale in Europe today are captive-bred. Turtles and tortoises are seen by some people as cheap pets that need little care.
The complexity and expense of proper turtle and tortoise husbandry is often underestimated. They also need opportunities to climb, dig and forage.
Most species of tortoise should be fed dark, leafy greens with calcium and vitamin supplements.
Turtles require a large tub or aquarium with land areas where they can dry off completely and other areas where they can rest near the water's surface, on a piece of submerged driftwood for example.
Like tortoises, turtles need access to UVB lighting and a varied diet rich in calcium. The flesh of turtles, calipash or calipee , was and still is considered a delicacy in a number of cultures.
Turtles remain a part of the traditional diet on the island of Grand Cayman , so much so that when wild stocks became depleted, a turtle farm was established specifically to raise sea turtles for their meat.
The farm also releases specimens to the wild as part of an effort to repopulate the Caribbean Sea. Fat from turtles is also used in the Caribbean and in Mexico as a main ingredient in cosmetics, marketed under its Spanish name crema de tortuga.
Turtle plastrons the part of the shell that covers a tortoise from the bottom are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine ; according to statistics, Taiwan imports hundreds of tons of plastrons every year.
In February , the Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group published a report about the top 25 species of turtles most likely to become extinct, with a further 40 species at very high risk of becoming extinct.
This list excludes sea turtles, however, both the leatherback and the Kemp's ridley would make the top 25 list.
The report is due to be updated in four years time allowing to follow the evolution of the list. Of the species of freshwater and terrestrial turtles, species are considered Threatened, 73 are either Endangered or Critically Endangered and 1 is Extinct.
Of the 58 species belonging to the family Testudinidae, 33 species are Threatened, 18 are either Endangered or Critically Endangered, 1 is Extinct in the wild and 7 species are Extinct.
Asian species are the most endangered, closely followed by the five endemic species from Madagascar. Turtles face many threats, including habitat destruction, harvesting for consumption, and the pet trade.
The high extinction risk for Asian species is primarily due to the long-term unsustainable exploitation of turtles and tortoises for consumption and traditional Chinese medicine, and to a lesser extent for the international pet trade.
Efforts have been made by Chinese entrepreneurs to satisfy increasing demand for turtle meat as gourmet food and traditional medicine with farmed turtles, instead of wild-caught ones; according to a study published in , over a thousand turtle farms operated in China.
Nonetheless, wild turtles continue to be caught and sent to market in large number as well as to turtle farms, to be used as breeding stock  , resulting in a situation described by conservationists as "the Asian turtle crisis".
Harvesting wild turtles is legal in a number of states in the USA. Some of the catch gets to the local restaurants, while most of it is exported to Asia.
The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission estimated in that around 3, pounds of softshell turtles were exported each week via Tampa International Airport.
Nonetheless, the great majority of turtles exported from the USA are farm raised. TurtleSAt is a smartphone app that has been developed in Australia in honor of World Turtle Day to help in the conservation of fresh water turtles in Australia.
The app will allow the user to identify turtles with a picture guide and the location of turtles using the phones GPS to record sightings and help find hidden turtle nesting grounds.
The app has been developed because there has been a high per cent of decline of fresh water turtles in Australia due to foxes, droughts, and urban development.
The aim of the app is to reduce the number of foxes and help with targeting feral animal control. Queensland 's shark culling program, which has killed roughly 50, sharks since , has also killed thousands of turtles as bycatch.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Turtles. For other uses, see Turtle disambiguation.
Any reptile of the order Testudines. Turtle, tortoise, and terrapin. Green sea turtle. African spurred tortoise. Red-eared slider terrapin.
Neck retraction in turtles. Pleurodires retract their neck sideways. Cryptodires retract their neck backwards. Main article: Turtle shell.
See also: Animal cognition. Play media. Main article: Turtle classification. See also: List of Testudines families. Other items in the image are dried lingzhi , snake, luo han guo , and ginseng.
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Marshall Cavendish. Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins: Survivors in Armor. Firefly Books. Archived from the original on December 6, Retrieved September 16, Free Press.
Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. Online Etymology Dictionary.
March 1, Systematic Biology. Wyneken, Jeanette, , Bels, V. Vincent L. Journal of Morphology. Scientific Reports. Bibcode : NatSR May 30, Retrieved November 11, Nature Communications.
Bibcode : NatCo July Journal of Comparative Psychology. The New York Times. Retrieved September 15, Eisenberg, J. Advances in the Study of Mammalian Behavior.
Behavioural Processes. November 29, Bibcode : Natur. November 13, Animal Cognition. Journal of Heredity.
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